Thursday, May 21, 2020

An Organisational Behaviour Assignment - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 8 Words: 2489 Downloads: 6 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Management Essay Type Narrative essay Level High school Did you like this example? Olympia College, Ipoh Executive Diploma in Business Management Introduction What is organization behaviour? It is commonly referred to as OB which is an interdisciplinary field dedicated to better understanding and managing people at work. OB is an academic designation. With the exception of teaching or research positions, OB is not daily job category such as accounting, marketing or finance. OB is a horizontal discipline that deducts across virtually every job category, business function and professional specially. A historical perspective of the study of people at work helps in studying organization behaviour. According to a management history expert, this is important because Historical perspective is the study of a subject in light of its earliest phases and subsequent evolution. Historical perspective differs from history in that object of historical perspective is to sharpen oneà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s vision of the present, not the pass. In other words, we can better understand where the field of OB is today and where it appears t o be headed by appreciating where it has been. With this assignment, let the researcher identify and describe the dominant values of in todayà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s workforce by cohort with relevant theories and examples in question one. Secondly, the researcher needs to give three common decision-making biases that encountered in organization following by the errors involved, the circumstances and the effects of these biases towards the outcomes of the situations in question two. Describe the dominant values of todayà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s workforce by cohort with relevant theories and examples by using Malaysia as a reference A countryà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s culture influences the dominant personality characteristics of its population. Contemporary Work Cohorts. The society in which the employee grew up also affects values. The following are descriptions of the major cohorts of employees in the United Stare workforce. The four cohorts are Veterans, Boomers, Xers, and Nexters. Vete rans We call them Veterans (some use the label Traditionalists). Those who are aged 65(+) who entered workforce during the 1950s through 1960s. Veterans believe in the value of hard work, remaining the status quo, and respect authority. Veterans work hard and are practical. There is a heavy emphasis on the RVS terminal values of a comfortable life and family security. Boomers Boomers are the largest cohort. Boomers entered the workforce from 1965 through 1985. Tend to distrust authority and place a great deal of emphasis on their achievement and successful. Boomers are hard working. RVS terminal values emphasized are sense of accomplishment and social recognition Xers These employees started from 1985 through 2000. Xers value flexibility, life options, and job satisfaction. Family and relationships are very important and Xers are very skeptical people, especially toward authority. Xers like money but value increased leisure time. Xers are less willing to sacrifice for employers. RVS emphasis is true friendship, happiness and friendship. Nexters Starting in 2000, the most recent cohort has high expectation and expects meaning from their work. Very motivated by money and material possessions, Nexters like teamwork but they are very self-reliant. Nexters are high scores in RVS on freedom and a comfortable life. The average employeeà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s work-life in Malaysia is 50 years old. In question one, the researcher would like to discuss about the employees those working in the organization at the age of 25 to 40 years old, which fall under category Xers. Majority of them have proof to value flexibility and achievement of their jobs. This is because they had gained lot of experience throughout their life and know what it takes to achieve their target. Some of them are two-career parents and computers. Xers are sense of family. Their family and friends are very important to them. Those are marriage and have children; they always spen d their free time for family and friends like travelling, picnic and so on. Xers are skeptical people. They do not easily to trust someone especially toward business or money. In the researcher organization, Xers are very careful to do everything and do not easily to trust people. Although some people try to give them some opinion; they will consider it in a few times before make every decision. Xers are worries about the other people will betrayed them and take over their authority control. In between, Xers dislike complying with the rule in the organization. Normally, Xers do not follow the rule has set by the organization. For example, Xers do not like to wear company T-Shirt on every Friday. In fact, this is compulsory for every employee to wear company T-shirt on every Friday. Xers do not follow the rules because they think that is not as much important instead of more focus on the achievement the goals of organization. Describe three of the decision-making biases based o n the scenario of the current organization by the following the errors involved, the circumstances and the effects. Research shows that decision making biases have occur in the researcherà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s organization was examined as below. To gain an understanding of how the negative phenomenon happen in the company which is caused the decision making biases, this research is focus on (1) the errors involved , (2) the circumstances, and (3) the effects of these biases toward the outcomes of the situations. There are the several scenarios of decision making biases. Each is based on a different part of assumptions and offer unique insight into the decisions making biases process. Let begin with the orderly explanation of decision making biases. Scenario 1 Overconfidence Bias The overconfidence bias relates to our tendency to be over-confident about estimates or forecasts. This bias is particularly occurs when decision makers tend to think that they know more than they a ctually do and hold unrealistically positive views of themselves and their performance in the company. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "An Organisational Behaviour Assignment" essay for you Create order The error involved Based on the research, a problem exists when the researcher who thinks that is an invaluable to the organization however almost everyone could actually do the same job. The researcher might show overconfidence by coming late to work; early finish work and unexcused absence because of thinks can control everything in the company and not to get fired by the employer. The circumstance The researcherà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s organization planning to organize a charity to visit to the orphanage and the visit date is just around the corner. Thus, every department need to be group together to have a systematic discussion in order arrange the schedule time table, preparation for performance, preparation for meal, sponsorship, budget listing and so on. As this is a charity event organized by the researcherà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s organization for the first time, the organization attaches great importance and attention to every detail. The researcherà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s organization also worry about canà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢t make it successfully complete with the selected day. The researcher thinks that is no difficulty to reach the successful and shows arrogant to make a promise that able to complete all of the process deal with the dateline. Certainly, the organization very satisfies and hopes to hear the good news soon. However, the bad dream began to happen. During the peak perio d, every employee is rushing to their responsibilities job in everyday like doing report, achieve sales target and so on. Sometimes the employees are required to stay back after working hour. Wherefore the employee cannot focus on other programs except their own job. The researcher easily agrees by complete the task before deadline without the initial discussion with the related department. The researcher did not get consent and consult of the department. Eventually, the charity visiting program cannot reach to accomplishment of the best way. The researcherà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s organization cannot schedule to find sponsors for sponsoring this charity event funding, leading to spend more on such planning. The effect toward the outcome In this matter, apparently a person overconfidence performance leads everyone had implicated innocent. Beside this, many of the negative problems may occur in the researcherà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s organization. After this incident, a lot of negative minded appear on the employeeà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s brain, the employee will start to feel frustration and dissatisfaction with the overconfidence attitude of researcher. Therefore, the researcherà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s organization may risk the case of conflict among employees. In addition, the overconfidence attitude of the researcher will make the company leads to unnecessary costs spend. Scenario 2 Immediate gratification bias The immediate gratification bias is describes about the decision makers who tend to want immediate rewards and avoid immediate costs. It which mean as neglect the future outcome of the company when simply give importance to those decision choices which have quick achievement. The error involved This is a case based on immediate gratification bias. The researcher only focuses on the big picture earning points by setting the strict rules and force the employees comply with these rule in order to reach the sales target. Although the sales target is reached, the company did not reward the employee who been contributed for the organization. (2) The circumstance In a few months is the advent of the Chinese New Year, the researcher organization decided to increase the turnover and pushing the organizations earnings to highest point. The organization decided to sales staff department overtime in order to achieve the turnover target. Therefore, the researcher set a number of strict rules aim to make sure all the sales people are able to reach the target set in the shortest time. The rules are require employees cannot on leave on this following months, be sure to receive a daily limit quota of orders of customer, work for at least nine hours in everyday. Although the employee s feel that very strict or even feel very harsh with the organization. Employees think that can help the company to earn greater profits during this time, they will not be mistreated, or bonus would certainly be more than pass year. Employees will therefore pick up more business more aggressively, sacrificing the time for company family and even personal health problems in order to achieve sales target. In just two months, after staff efforts and hard work, the organizations turnover increased significantly as expected by 30% of all of the shareholders are satisfied. At this moment, all the staffs are very excited to wait for the researcher to request with the organization in order to increase bonus payment of good news, but the researcher refuse to help the employee to send their request to the company. By the opposite, the researcher aspect the employee should earn the maximum profit for the company. (3) The effect toward the outcome This had created a circumstance of dis satisfaction among the rest of the employee. The employees feel frustration with the organization. Many good and capable staffs cannot stand to the unfair treatment have resign and left, such action had negatively resulted to the organization. Scenario 3 Self-serving Bias The self-serving bias found as exhibited by decision makers who are quick to take credit for their successful and blame failure on outside factors. Some research has shifted focus to physiological manipulations, such as emotional inducement and neural activation, in an attempt to better understand the biological mechanisms that contribute to the self-serving bias. The error involved Based on the research, the researcher had made this bias in the organization. The researcher only focuses on the strength or successful but overlook the error making. Beside this, the researcher refused to appreciate the advice given by the organization but blame failure on others reason. The circumstance For one of the example based on the researcherà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s organization, the top management decide to select certain employees to attend training course. The training courses aim to advocating working knowledge of the employee. In addition, through training of employees who will allow to have the opportunity for promotion and increase salary. Employees are actively to participate in training courses. The employees are required to pass with the official test. Therefore, only qualified employees are eligible to be admitted because of the limited quantity of employee needed. The researcher compares over favorable to others. The researcher thinks is much better than other employees because have more working experience and well understanding with the organization. The researcher didnà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢t get a well prepare before the test. At the end, the researcher has failed with the test. The researcher dissatisfies with the result and blames to the top management. The effect toward the outcome The impact of the self-serving bias will brings the researcher make the decision but not earning the best interest to the organization. This phenomenon is unhealthy may caused easier to make error decision while planning certain programme. Conclusion Recommendations In conclude, the research show to understand that an individualà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s values differ from, but tend to reflect, the societal values of the period in which they grew up can be a valuable aid in predicting behavior. The perceived decline in business ethics has been linked by some authors to cohorts. The veterans, who had high organizational loyalty, began leaving management at about the time that ethics were seen to decline in the late 1970s. Since managerial behaviors are one of the strongest influencers of organizational ethics, changing from a loyal cohort to one more driven by their own needs, (boomers), may explain the drop in ethical standards. It is possible that standards will rise when Xers managers take over as they value loyalty in relationship. In addition, the report shows that decision making is one of the primary responsibilities when perform duties in workplace. Decision making is means as to the end. It signifies identifying and choosing alternative methods lead to a desired state of affairs. The process begins with a problem and ends when a solution has been selected. On the contrary, personal biases can be divisive forces within a decision processes when they often lead to less than ideal outcomes for decision makers. People make a variety of mistakes when making decisions. These mistakes are generally associated with a host of biases that occur when we use judgmental heuristics. Primarily it is very important to understand biases in order to overcome it. There contain few methods to try out to overcome unconscious and hidden biases. Understanding bias Consider various ways you can gain some insight into your bias. Explore the dynamic of biases. Working on the bias Recognize that the specific bias exists. Consider why it is usually so difficult to remove biases. Ask yourself questions. Meet the object of your bias head on with an open mind. Ultimately take things a step at a time. References The McGraw-Hill Companies (2001), Organization Behaviour, Inc.1221 Avenue of the America, New York, NY, 10020. [Accessed 10th March 2014] Barrow, Colin (2009), The 30 day MBA, Great Britain and the United States, Kogan Page Limited. [Accessed 10th March 2014] Personality and Values [Online] Available at: [Accessed: 10th Mar 2014]. Michael Chibnik, American Anthropologist, volume 57, Issue 6, Article first published online: 28 OCT 2009 [online] Available at: [Accessed: 10th Mar 2014]. 2014. Working in Malaysia. [Online] Available at: [Accessed: 10th Mar 2014]. Organization Behavior Page 1

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Lottery Essay - 1363 Words

There are many Americans and people all over the world that live their lives following traditions that are passed down from one generation to another. A tradition can be as simple as cooking a recipe to how you raise your children and holiday traditions. Culture plays a significant role in how people live their day to day lives. In Shirley Jacksons â€Å"The Lottery† the people that lived in the town follow a tradition every year. Its easy to understand why Shirley Jackson’s Lottery caused controversy when it was published shortly after World War II in 1948. The Lottery has been dramatized, televised and turned into a ballet. It is taught in high schools and colleges. (Whittier). The Lottery held many questions about traditions that have†¦show more content†¦Jackson story is very similar to Collins. In The Lottery, there is no explanation on why this tradition is necessary or why it has to be done. Jackson does make it clear that she does introduce the oldest character; Old Man Warner is making the statement that â€Å"theres always been the lottery† (Jackson). Later on in the story; its mentioned that the other townspeople mentioned in quitting the tradition and Old Man Warner said â€Å" Nothing but trouble in that† (Jackson). Jackson used Old Man Warner’s character and old age to represent the older generations that have a hard time adapting to changes. When Mr. Adams mention quitting the tradition, Old Man Warner’s response was â€Å"Pack of crazy fools. Listening to the young folks, nothing’s good enough for them. Next thing you know, they’ll want to go back to living in caves, nobody work any more, live that way for a while. Used to be a saying about ‘Lottery in June, Corn be heavy soon.’ The first thing you know, we’d all be eating stewed chickweed and acorns. There’s always been a lottery. Bad enough to see young Joe Summers up there joking with everyone† (Jackson). Old Man Warner’s Character shows how the older generations have a harder time adapting to change. The younger generations usually are the ones who introduce change, which is looked down upon by more of the traditional person. Its interesting the way Jackson made Old Man Warner of theShow MoreRelatedThe Lottery Essay870 Words   |  4 Pageshas a passion for something, there is an uncontrollable emotion about it. Everyone in the world is different, if it was not that way, the world would not go around. Someone may have a passion for something that another person can not stand. In â€Å"The Lottery,† there was a negative passion for people getting stoned. The emotions of others that did not get stoned were horrific for the one getting stoned to death. The father in â€Å"Without Title,† had a huge passion for hunting buffalo. The only problem wasRead More The Lottery Essay811 Words   |  4 Pagesword lottery, you probably think of winning a large su m of money before being stoned to death. quot; The Lotteryquot; by Shirley Jackson brings this horrible idea to life. While the overall mood of the story depicts a typical day in a small rural town, through great use of imagery and irony, one is set up for an unusual ending. Shirley Jackson uses the element of surprise. The way of the story ends is unlike anyone could predict. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;The main object of The Lottery is theRead MoreThe Lottery Essay617 Words   |  3 PagesJacksons most famous short story, quot;The Lotteryquot;. Her insights and observations about man and society are disturbing; and in the case of quot;The Lottery,quot; they are shocking. quot;The themes themselves are not new, evil cloaked in seeming good, prejudice and hypocrisy, loneliness and frustration, psychological studies of minds that have slipped the bonds of realityquot; (Friedman). Literary critic, Elizabeth Janeway wrote that, quot; The Lottery makes its effect without having to stateRead MoreThe Lottery Essay705 Words   |  3 Pagesnames to a number of her characters. Can you explain the possible allusions or symbolism of some of these? Delacroix Graves Summers Bentham Hutchinson Warner Martin 5. Graves- what has to be dug after the lottery is over with Summers- The time of the year that the lottery is drawn Martin- Possibly a way to say martyr or another word for a scapegoat 6. Find at least three examples of descriptive language. 6.Three examples of descriptive language in the story are when they are describingRead More The Lottery Essay946 Words   |  4 Pages The Message Sent in â€Å"The Lottery† nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;The shock value of Shirley Jackson’s â€Å"The Lottery† is not only widely known, but also widely felt. Her writing style effectively allows the reader to pass a judgment on themselves and the society in which they live. In â€Å"The Lottery† Jackson is making a comparison to human nature. It is prominent in all human civilizations to take a chance as a source of entertainment and as this chance is taken, something is both won and lost. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;AsRead MoreThe Lottery Essay738 Words   |  3 PagesIn â€Å"The Lottery† by Shirley Jackson and the historical event of blacklisting Americans during the 1950s, the authors convey that loyalty causes us to turn against others around you through symbols. In â€Å"The Lottery†, loyalty to tradition caused a society to turn on one another. â€Å"The Lottery† was an annual tradition where each head of household (the dominant male in each home) picked a slip of paper. If the piece selected had a black dot on it, you had to go through the selection process again, butRead MoreThe Lottery Essay714 Words   |  3 Pagesin â€Å"The Lottery†, â€Å"The Fun They Had†, and also â€Å"Eye of the Beholder.† I feel that in â€Å"The Lottery†, Tessie was right for arguing against winning the yearly tradition of the lottery. Margie was right for feeling that the past schools were better in â€Å"The Fun They Had†, an d Janet was right for contrasting herself from the others in â€Å"Eye of the Beholder.† Individuals may distinguish their interpretations on distinct feelings or statements. In â€Å"The Lottery†, a yearly tradition of a lottery takes placeRead MoreThe Lottery Essay938 Words   |  4 Pagesthe lottery, but not its exact purpose. Do the townspeople know? Is this omission significant? Intentional? No, the townspeople do not know the lottery’s exact purpose. This omission is not significant because it seems there is no point in the lottery and why these people are operating such horrid acts. It is more intentional; the townspeople are playing it safe thinking they are keeping a tradition, yet no one seems brave enough to ask why? 3. Why is much of the history of the lottery andRead MoreEssay on The Lottery777 Words   |  4 Pages Shirley Jackson’s insights and observations about man and society are reflected in her famous short story quot;The Lotteryquot;. Many of her readers have found this story shocking and disturbing. Jackson reveals two general attitudes in this story: first, the shocking reality of human’s tendency to select a scapegoat and second, society as a victim of tradition and ritual. Throughout history we have witnessed and participated in many events, where, in time of turmoil and hardship, society hasRead MoreThe Lottery Essay1133 Words   |  5 Pagesbeginning of Shirley Jackson’s short story â€Å"The Lottery,† the village congregates in the square on the â€Å"clear and sunny† (247) midsummer day of June 27th. The children are out of school, the flowers are blooming, and the grass is a vibrant green. Ursula K. Le Guin’s short story â€Å"The Ones Who Walk Away From Omelas,† begins on â€Å"the Festival of Summer,† (242) which includes processions, dancing, singing, bells, and horses. Although the village in â€Å"The Lottery† and the city of Omelas appear pleasant and

Relationship between Politics and Religion Free Essays

Between the fourth and eleventh centuries, the relationship between politics and religion included religion being used for military aid, papal primacy, rulers enforcing religious orthodoxy, and religion being used for legltlmlaatlon. One of the relationships between religion and politics was papal primacy (church power over ruler power) as seen in documents 3, 4, and 5, In the fifth century, Pope Gelasius told the Roman emperor it was important to deter to papal authority. He wrote this in a demanding and domineering way in order to maintain power over secular rulers Gelaslus I’s letter Illustrates the Idea of papal primacy where he tated, â€Å"[P]iously bow your neck to those who have charge of divine affairs† (doc. We will write a custom essay sample on Relationship between Politics and Religion or any similar topic only for you Order Now 3). Since the pope argued that rulers should â€Å"bow† to the clergy, this Indicates the power ot the pope over secular rulers. Similarly, Pope Gregory VII asserted his power over princes and their subjects. Since the Dictatus Papae was a letter. which was candid. It probably portrays the pope’s view’S accurately. In the letter the pope claimed he had the power to release people from their ruler’s authority, which suggests the pope was superior to rulers In terms of their power (doc. 4), Gregory VII also railed dgdlnst Idy nvestiture (kings appointing bishops). As a pope, he would of course see matters of faith as most Important because he was head of the Church. HIS decree exemplifies papal primacy because he proclaimed, â€Å"[N]o clergyman shall receive Investiture from the hand of the emperor, or the king† (doc. ). By reserving the power to appoint bishops, the pope had more power than emperors and Another document that might further this analysis of papal primacy would be a comparison of the land holdings of kings versus the papacy. This might indicate whether or not wealth contributed to the papacys sense ot superlorlty wer secular rulers. Another relationship between politics and religion was the use of religion for military support as shown In documents 2 and 8. In the late sixth century, Gregory wrote in the account of the conversion of king Clovis bringing about the history of his armys victory between the fight of the Franks and the Alemannl. In the document, It is mentioned that Clovis’ passion tor Jesus Christ earned his victory with the fight between his army and the Alemanni and the address of this, suggests that Gregory as the 81shop of Tours was for the divinity of this particular faith. Clovis proclaimed, â€Å"Jesus Christ†¦ o is said to give aid to those in distress and victory to those who hope In you† (doc. 2). This gives off the Impression that religion was much valued when it came to winning a tight between armies. Charlemagne wrote to pope Leo Ill indicating that religion provided for the support of the military. As the king of the Franks, he Is dedicated to have the faith concerning of Jesus Christ whom he Is to glorify and having the authority as the head of the church, the belief of Christ Influenced hi s thoughts on the mllltdry did. The king addressed, â€Å"Cod willing and granting, the Christian people will torever achieve victory over the enemies ot His ame†, which indicates his favor towards the Invocation for military support from his Lord In relation to religion being Invoked for military aid, another document that might further this analysis would be a reference from the annals which might show an L]nblased point of view of religions towards the act of military. Relationship between Politics and Religion BY asdf0801 religious orthodoxy, and religion being used for legitimization. power over ruler power) as seen in documents 3, 4, and 5. In the fifth century, Pope Gelasius I told the Roman emperor it was important to defer to papal authority. He secular rulers. Gelasius I’s letter illustrates the idea of papal primacy where he Since the pope argued that rulers should â€Å"bow’ to the clergy, this indicates the power of the pope over secular rulers. Similarly, Pope Gregory VII asserted his power over princes and their subjects. Since the Dictatus Papae was a letter, which was candid, it probably portrays the pope’s views accurately. In the letter the pope claimed he had superior to rulers in terms of their power (doc. 4). Gregory VII also railed against lay faith as most important because he was head of the Church. His decree exemplifies apal primacy because he proclaimed, â€Å"[N]o clergyman shall receive investiture bishops, the pope had more power than emperors and kings. Another document that contributed to the papacy’s sense of superiority over secular rulers. military support as shown in documents 2 and 8. In the late sixth century, Gregory army’s victory between the fght of the Franks and the Alemanni. In the document, it is mentioned that Clovis’ passion for Jesus Christ earned his victory with the fght as the Bishop of Tours was for the divinity of this particular faith. Clovis proclaimed, hope in you† (doc. 2). This gives off the impression that religion was much valued when it came to winning a fght between armies. Charlemagne wrote to pope Leo Ill Franks, he is dedicated to have the faith concerning of Jesus Christ whom he is to influenced his thoughts on the military aid. The king addressed, â€Å"God willing and granting, the Christian people will forever achieve victory over the enemies of His name†, which indicates his favor towards the invocation for military support from his Lord. In relation to religion being invoked for military aid, another document that an unbiased point of view of religions towards the act of military. How to cite Relationship between Politics and Religion, Papers

Sunday, April 26, 2020

The inertia of love was fully Essay Example For Students

The inertia of love was fully Essay The inertia of love was fully bloomed into a evolve rose of optimism with two sub-ordinate leaves, his wife Elizabeth Barrett Browning and his child Robert Weidman Barrett Browning. He is a love poet with a specialty of his own. Borrowings love poetry has a range and realism which are different from his great predecessors. In his love poems Browning describes the passion and treats it from intellectual point of view. In Browning the intellectual element is too powerful to allow the predominance of sensuousness even in his love poems. This present paper is an attempt to critically access and estimate the variety f situations of love on the most celebrated poems where the maturity of his love thought is magnificently sung. Love was to him the critical point and test of a mans life. In his poems we see the indictment of possessive love, destructive love or optimistic love. The purpose of this paper is to sort out those significant works talking about different types of love so that the readers can muse on these interpretations. We will write a custom essay on The inertia of love was fully specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now Furthermore, it may explore Borrowings dominant theme love as a bright lantern to walk through the vulnerable ways of life. CHAPTER I Introduction 1. 1 Life and Works of Robert Browning Biography Robert Browning was born on May 7, 1812, in Comparable (a suburb of London), the first child of Robert and Sarah Anna Browning. His mother was a fervent evangelical and an accomplished pianist. And his father was a clerk in the Bank of England. He was an extremely bright child and a voracious reader and learned Latin, Greek, French and Italian by the time he was fourteen. Between 1820-26 he attended the school of the Rev. Thomas Ready at Package, and for a short while in 1828, he attended University College London, but most of Borrowings education was informal. He often had private tutors, and his fathers unusually large bribery was at his disposal. Like Tennyson, this boy found his work very early, and for fifty years hardly a week passed that he did not write poetry. He began at six to produce verses, in imitation of Byron; but his first known work Pauline (1833), must be considered as a tribute to Shelley and his poetry. It was soon followed by Paralegals (1835) and Sorrel(1840). A year later, APIPA Passes, the first in a series entitled Bells and Pomegranates was published; the remaining seven parts appeared between 1841-46. On 12 September 1846, Robert Browning married Elizabeth Barrett at SST. Marrowbone Parish Church, London. They left a week later for Florence, Italy, where they spent the remainder of their married life. Their Florentine home, called Case GUID, has been preserved as a memorial to the poets. In 1849, the birth of his son was overshadowed by the death of Borrowings mother. Also in 1849, a two- volume selection of Borrowings poetry was published. The following year, Christmas- Eve and Easter-Day was published, and it was five years later before Men and Women appeared. After the death of his wife in 1861, Browning left Florence, never to return. In 1860, however, he had bought the Old Yellow Book in a secondhand stall n Florence. This was the source for his epic poem, The Ring and the Book, published in 1868-69. In 1867, Browning received an Honorary M. A. From Oxford and was made and Honorary Fellow of Billion College, Oxford. Later in 1882, he received an Honorary D. C. L. From Oxford. Browning died on 12 December 1889 at Accretions, Venice, but not before he heard the news of the success of his latest volume of poetry, Ashland, published that same day. These lines from the Epilogue to that volume offer a fitting tribute to one of the great poets of the Victorian age: One who never turned his back but marched breast forward, reek, Never doubted clouds would Never dreamed, though right were worsted, wrong would triumph, we fall to rise, are baffled to fight better, Sleep to wake. On 31 December 1889, Browning was buried in Poets Corner, Westminster Abbey. Works of Robert Browning A glance at even the titles which Browning gave his best known volumes-Dramatic Lyrics (1845), Dramatic Romances and Lyrics (1845), Men and Women (1855), Dramatic Persona (1864)- will suggest how strong the dramatic elements is in all his works. Indeed, all his poems may be divided into three classes- pure dramas, like Stratford ND A Blot in the Escutcheon; dramatic narratives, like APIPA Passes, which are dramatic in form. UT were not meant to be acted; and dramatic lyrics, like The Last Ride Ride Together, which are short poems expressing some strong personal emotions, or describing some dramatic episodes in human life, and in which the hero himself generally tells the story. If we separate all these dramatic poems into three main periods- the early, from 1833 to 1841; the middle, from 1841 to 1868; and the late, from 1868 to 1889. The poems written on the first period were less at tractive and obscure. In the middle period he wrote APIPA Passes, which on the whole the most perfect of his longer poems. Nearly all his best lyrics, dramas, and dramatic poems belong to this middle period. And when The Ring and the Book appeared, in 1868, he had given to the world the noblest expression of his poetic genius. The third period shows Borrowings power of revealing the hidden springs of human actions, but he often rambles most tiresomely, and in general his work loses in sustained interest. 1. 2 Origin of love in the poems of Robert Browning Browning was an ardent lover. The nucleus of his poetry, the enthusiastic love, has en reflected into almost all his poetic creations. The inertia of love was fully bloomed into a lovely rose of optimism, with its two sub-ordinate leaves, his wife Elizabeth Barrett Browning and his child Robert Weidman Barrett Browning. Perhaps, it was Browning passionate and forceful love for Elizabeth Barrett that has endowed him great success almost in all the fields, he attempted; There is nothing sickly or dreamy in him: he has a clear eye, a vigorous grasp, and courage to utter what he sees and handles. (George Eliot 1974). This attitude gave him the confidence to establish an optimistic attitude to life, to the oral, and to almost all existing things, which was the extract of his uncircumcised love. All these contribute a lot in making him the chief exponent of what has been called Victorian Optimism. This gave Browning recognition in poetic sphere and ranked him as a great poet and esteemed highly as Tennyson, thus he be came the voice and spirit of his age, the Victorian era. Elizabeth Barrett came from a prominent and wealthy family and she was already a well established poet before she met fellow poet Robert Browning. Their relationship began in his admiring her poetry. His audacious first letter moves from loving her books to loving her . Robert had been an admirer of Elizabethan work for some time, and with the help of a friend, John Kenyon, met Elizabeth in 1845. The two quickly fell in love and thus, began one of the most famous courtships in literature. Her father disapproved of Robert, who believed he was an unreliable fortune hunter, so the couple kept their relationship a secret. Together, they exchanged hundreds of love letters, and by 1846, the couple eloped. Her father disowned her and she faced disgust from her brothers, who believed she had married a low-class gold digger. However, Elizabeth stood by her husband, and shortly after their wedding, they fled to Italy. These Victorian writers had some aspects in common in their lifestyles as, for instance, the extraordinary education they received at home, their early devotion to learning and writing or a life mostly developed at home due to different reasons as we will see (in Elisabeth case, due to her fathers tyranny as well as her sickly health; in Roberts case, due to his indoor education and his dislike to public life becoming his house his shelter) but we will also point out the differences which exist between them: they belonged to efferent social classes, they were educated in different values and they didnt succeed in the same way. However, after getting to know each other through correspondence, they decided to make a new start together in a foreign country in spite of some problems. They represent the triumph of love; a love which started with Roberts admiration to Elizabethan verses and a love which made her leave her paternal prison forever. Such sweet and melodious outpouring of over brimming love was the result of that unprecedented and unrivalled, history-making relationship that Browning shared with Elizabeth Barrett. Actually, she was the permanent shower of inspiration for Borrowings spiritual and intellectual strength. She was the real and only thundering force behind the full-ripe and mature genius of Browning, Cohen writes- Browning did not write great poetry until he had attained emotional maturity, and this he lacked till the years of his marriage. (Cohen 1964) This meeting and marital- unions of Browning with Elizabeth Barrett was the peak of pleasure for Browning in comparison of other ecstasies of his life. This was the supreme experience of Browning whole life feelings supreme experience did not make him a poet rather; Elizabeth Barrett made him a love poet. Through the love that she endowed to him, the man of supreme love experience became the supreme love poet. Her reward was- By the Fireside, which could be treated as a poem which treasures Brown almost all romantic feelings, which are kept with the final lock of memory in the heart. This poem could be called the greatest love poem in the English language the other language that has dealt with the topic love. In this poem we may name glimpse of almost all the real feelings of love, of Browning heart that can be regarded as the real and supreme feelings of Borrowings love. Thus, Browning whole life achievement rests on his love which served him as a stepping stone t success and which ultimately became a mile-stone of his success in the both the fields-personal or literacy. Love is not only a success bringer for Browning rather everyone, who loves truly and passionately, becomes successful in almost all the corners of life. .uc0c4141a58b03519b97227921c828536 , .uc0c4141a58b03519b97227921c828536 .postImageUrl , .uc0c4141a58b03519b97227921c828536 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .uc0c4141a58b03519b97227921c828536 , .uc0c4141a58b03519b97227921c828536:hover , .uc0c4141a58b03519b97227921c828536:visited , .uc0c4141a58b03519b97227921c828536:active { border:0!important; } .uc0c4141a58b03519b97227921c828536 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .uc0c4141a58b03519b97227921c828536 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .uc0c4141a58b03519b97227921c828536:active , .uc0c4141a58b03519b97227921c828536:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .uc0c4141a58b03519b97227921c828536 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .uc0c4141a58b03519b97227921c828536 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .uc0c4141a58b03519b97227921c828536 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .uc0c4141a58b03519b97227921c828536 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .uc0c4141a58b03519b97227921c828536:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .uc0c4141a58b03519b97227921c828536 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .uc0c4141a58b03519b97227921c828536 .uc0c4141a58b03519b97227921c828536-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .uc0c4141a58b03519b97227921c828536:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Neoclassical Poetry EssaySome one has rightly said that behind every successful man, the woman, and this is the lady, Elizabeth, who works as an abrupt force behind the potentially of this love poetry, and thus, with the help of her loving inspiration, t man succeed in life. Chapter II . Concept of love in literature Love is the most cherished thing in the life of every human being. We all think a it, dream about it, sing about it, and even lose sleep worrying about it. Love is us small word paired with a vital meaning. Its universal, easy to spell, difficult Todd but impossible to live without. When we dont have it, we search for it, when we it, we dont know what to do with it, when we have it, we fear losing it. Love is the constant source of happiness and sorrow. Love is a feeling for another person s pure, so deep that no one can define it to its true extent. Since the initial period iterate love has been the most dominant theme of writing. This theme has be exercised and celebrated in almost all the fields of literature such as poetry, n drama and so on. And in all periods of all literature love is the most influential theme. Even in Victorian Age, which is a period of doubt and unrest then also I remains as a prominent theme. Special aspects of love, approaches to love, reach to the torments and delights of romantic love, have been sung with greater pop Shakespeare, Sidney, Done, Andrew Marvel, Burns, Hardy, Yeats and some twentieth century poets . After John Done, Browning is the greatest exponent o hem of love in English poetry. Unlike other poets who always combine love wit sorrow and death, Browning sings of the Joy of love. His love for his wife also ca considered as his inspiration behind his love poems. The subject of Love Poet given rise to some of the most beautiful and fascinating poetry. The poets illus.s their feelings, or the feelings of the people concerned with them through the us of figurative language. A love poem is not necessarily a poem about romantic I about romance, marriage and commitment; it could be something else entirely. Seems to be universal timeless. Yet, its also very individual, filtered by poets owe lives and expectations. Love can be a different thing for each one of the poets. N love poems deal with happy positive sides of love but there are also the negative sides such as pain, sadness and loss. There are endless ways in which love can portrayed and occur. There are numerous types of love, whether its physical, emotional or romantic love. And in the poems of Robert Browning we get the indictment of various kinds of passions and emotions related to love. Chapter Ill 3. Robert Borrowings philosophy of love Robert Browning has a three- fold appeal. He is, first, a passionate singer of love and the world of sense-the lyrical Browning. Secondly, he is a psychological poet, the subtle delineated of the devious mental processes of human beings. Thirdly, he is a firm believer in the philosophy of optimism. But in the treatment of love he is second to none. Special aspects of love, approaches to love, reactions to the torments, and delights of romantic love, have been sung with greater power by many poets. But, so far matter, depth and touchy-feelings are concerned about the love between a man and a woman, the everlasting knot of love with timeless union, Browning has no impetigo and stands alone rather, becomes the beacon-light for his successors. The profound love with intense feeling of severe passion, a life that includes lives of love in it, and all its indefinable, link with the infinite reality that is God, ones complete and intimate understanding for other, the quality of self-abnegation and ennobling, an unspeakable faith and a concrete philosophy, and the perfect way of life that takes two persons to the level of their unlimited and impossible best. In such kind and quality of love, Browning stands as a perfect lyricist. After John Done, Browning is the greatest exponent of the theme of love in English poetry. Browning considers love to be the basic principle of the universe. Love is the governing force of the universe. For Browning, love is the name of God. He talked of love as the only force that could unify mind with God. Though many phases of love between man and woman are depicted by Browning, he is a matter of particular kind of love poetry. Unlike other love poets who always combine love with sorrow and death, Browning sings of the Joy of love. Browning has written two kinds of love poems- personal and dramatic. His personal poems are very few, because his bent of mind was fundamentally dramatic. Browning love poetry is both complex and comprehensive. His love poems deal with case of successful as well as unsuccessful love. Of the poems which treat of physical love, about two third, represent feelings of man and one third express the feelings of women. In love poems where a womans passion dominates there is less intellectual elements. When a poem deals with love of a man it shows greater intellectual depth. Moreover, the tragedies of woman in love appear more interesting to the poet than the tragedies of men. Love, for Browning was the peak of activities, of which human beings are capable, thus, he devoted his most intense and perfect consideration to it. Unlike the romantic poets, he created his world of love- lyrics like a practiced lover and he did not stick to a specific subjects rather he touched and treated almost all the colors of love emotion. Browning subject was neither happy nor unhappy love but love as an experience, a love that includes both the ends of ideal, spiritual and physical love and seers a line of horizon, whose reality was bound up with its permanence; his greatest love poetry is tutee reflective of idealism in love as well as the physical charm of love. His treatment of love is bold, realistic and unconventional. Whereas other Victorian considered the body as an obstacle in the path of spiritual emancipation, Browning frankly allows importance of body. He believes that physical pleasures are as important for a successful married in this world, as for heavenly bliss in the next. Browning feels the way to develop the human soul lays in love and the love has to be complete. It is to involve physical as well spiritual. Through human love it is possible to achieve divine love. Love is a complete experience in which the body, the mind, and the soul have their equal share. The sphere of Browning love poems have left no stone unturned. As Wordsmith has recorded each flattering of flowers petal, doing the same, Browning thinks finds-out, and gives an unmatched analysis of psychology of love, recording the each pulse of love emotion. Browning is not only the poet of normal psychology, rather, at some places, he expands his limit and goes beyond, discovers some specific but still hidden aspects of abnormality in lovers love-emotion unapproachable by the poetic-eyes of other writers. Apart from Browning bulk of love-poems, his analysis of abnormal psychology of love, he is first and foremost. He places his lovers in various situations and examines their psychological implications. His strong feeling in the ennobling power of love entitle him a place of distinction among the love poems. Chapter IV 4. Reflection of different types of love in Borrowings selected poems 4. 1 My Last Duchess: A study of illusive love Synopsis of the poem: My Last Duchess is narrated by the duke of Ferreira to an envoy (representative) of another nobleman, whose daughter the duke is soon to marry. At the poems peeing, the duke has Just pulled back a curtain to reveal to the envoy a portrait of his previous duchess. The portrait was painted by Far Pandora, a monk and painter whom the duke believes captured the singularity of the duchesss glance. However, the duke insists to the envoy that his former wifes deep, passionate glance was not reserved solely for her husband. As he puts it, she was too easily impressed into sharing her affable nature. His tone grows harsh as he recollects how both human and nature could impress her, which insulted him since she did not g to the gift of his nine-hundred-years-old family name and lineage sign to lesson her on her unacceptable love of everything, he inset commands to have her killed. The duke then ends his story and asks rise and accompany him back to the count, the father of the dukes I and the envoys employer. He mentions that he expects a high dowry, happy enough with the daughter herself. He insists that the envoy w together a lapse of the usual social expectation, where the higher would walk separately and on their descent he points out a bronze Neptune in his collection. Historical background of the poem: The poem is preceded by Ferreira:, indicating that the speaker is MO II detested, the fifth Duke of Ferreira (1533-1598), who, at the age of 25, did Cosmic De Medici, the 14-year-old daughter of Cosmic I De Medici, of Tuscany, and Eleanor did Toledo. Lucrative was not well educated, a could be considered nouveau richer in comparison to the venerable distinguished Est. family (the Dukes remark regarding his gift of a n years-old name clearly indicates that he considered his bride bane She came with a sizeable dowry, and the couple married in 1558. He her for two years before she died on 21 April 1561, at age 17. There w suspicion of poisoning. The Duke then sought the hand of Barbara, ii f the Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand I and Anna of Bohemia and Huh sister of the Count of Tyro, Ferdinand II. The count was in charge of a marriage; the chief of his entourage, Nikolas Madras, a native of Inn courier. Madras is presumably the silent listener in the poem. The to named in the poem, painter FRR Pandora and sculptor Claus of Inns fictional. Love as an illusion My Last Duchess, published in 1842, is arguably Borrowings most FAA monologue, with good reason. It engages the reader on a number of historical, psychological, ironic, theatrical, and more. .u3162a41bef098a6c9d6dbd0d09699844 , .u3162a41bef098a6c9d6dbd0d09699844 .postImageUrl , .u3162a41bef098a6c9d6dbd0d09699844 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u3162a41bef098a6c9d6dbd0d09699844 , .u3162a41bef098a6c9d6dbd0d09699844:hover , .u3162a41bef098a6c9d6dbd0d09699844:visited , .u3162a41bef098a6c9d6dbd0d09699844:active { border:0!important; } .u3162a41bef098a6c9d6dbd0d09699844 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u3162a41bef098a6c9d6dbd0d09699844 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u3162a41bef098a6c9d6dbd0d09699844:active , .u3162a41bef098a6c9d6dbd0d09699844:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u3162a41bef098a6c9d6dbd0d09699844 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u3162a41bef098a6c9d6dbd0d09699844 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u3162a41bef098a6c9d6dbd0d09699844 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u3162a41bef098a6c9d6dbd0d09699844 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u3162a41bef098a6c9d6dbd0d09699844:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u3162a41bef098a6c9d6dbd0d09699844 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u3162a41bef098a6c9d6dbd0d09699844 .u3162a41bef098a6c9d6dbd0d09699844-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u3162a41bef098a6c9d6dbd0d09699844:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: What Voice at Moth-Hour EssayBrowning has pr an exceptional way in this poem. This poem shows Borrowings Knowles different aspects of human nature and his analysis of human character motives. The poet makes the Duke talk about his last duchess in a dry and the Duke thus throws light not only on the character of the Duck his own mind also. In attempting to describe her, he has succeeded a his own narrow and hideous heart. He was proud, haughty, snobbish, tyrant. But the Duchess was a kind-hearted, amiable and lovable lad pride or vanity or haughtiness which women of high rank usually have whatever she looked on, and smiled at everybody who passed her. As She had A heart- how shall I say? Too soon made glad Too easily impressed ; she liked whatever She looked on, and her looks went everywhere. (line: 21-24) But her amiable and gay disposition was intolerable to him. He was possessive person. He used to give costly gifts to the Duchess and took it as a symbol of his love towards him. He was proud of belonging to a family of nine-hundred- years-old name and therefore took a patronizing attitude towards his wife. He thinks that he has conferred a title of a nine-hundred-years old name upon the Duchess and she should be grateful towards him. The Duke thinks that he loves his wife a lot UT fails to understand the lacking of mental attachment which is the core of a happy conjugal relationship. He says- She thanked men,-good! But thanked Somehow-I know not how-as if she ranked My gift of a nine-hundred-years-old name With anybody gift. (line: 31-34) It also indicates the Jealous and suspicious mind of the Duke. His Jealousy and suspicion have ruined his love and turned it into an illusion. She was not at all a flirt and therefore the Dukes Jealousy on account of her amiable nature is totally unjustified. We feel sympathy for the lady who, has fallen into the clutches of a tyrant ho could not understand or appreciate her and who froze her smile with his commands. His cruel and tyrannical nature reflects through these lines when he says- together. (line: 45-46) I gave commands; Then all smile stopped Actually, the Duke suffers from superiority complex. Name, fame, vanity and status were prior to him than his wife. He considers himself far superior to what she was. But we can understand that the Duchess must have been very gentle and innocent while the Duke was a conceited, self-opinionated high-brow. The Duke tries to represent her having beneath dignity to marry but we can guess that he did not serve her. He has strange notion of dignity. What we would call gentleness in the Duchess, he considers stupidity. What we think arrogance and snobbery in him, he considers dignity or high breeding. Thus it depicts the pathetic consequence of an unmatched relationship. Browning considers love to be a condition of moral enlistment of the human soul. And the Duke is hollow and mean because he has never known how to love and never realized the innocence and purity of his wife. Dukes love for the Duchess is fake, showy and an illusion. It is not love at all as he fails to accept her with all her natural qualities both good and bad. Rather he wanted her to behave in the way he wishes. Undoubtedly, it is a proper indictment of illusion disguised in the veil of love. Love for art One can also understand this poem as a commentary on art. The duke remains enamored with the woman he has had killed, though his affection now rests on a representation of her. In other words, he has chosen to love the ideal image of her rather than the reality, similar to how the narrator of Porphyrys Lover chose a static, dead love than one destined to change in the throes of life. In many ways, this is the artists dilemma, which Browning explores in all of his work. As poet, he attempts to capture contradiction and movement, psychological complexity that cannot be pinned down into one object, and yet in the end all he can create is a collection of static lines. The duke attempts to be an artist in his life, turning a walk roger down the hallway into a performance, but he is always hampered ideal that inspires his performance cannot change. Picture of mall society In order to critique the oppressive male dominating society of his voice to villainous characters each representing the antithesis of Browning does not eliminate all his personal virtues from all his arraying Elizabeth Barrett Browning poems become more open unveiling the truth and the benevolent nature of the poet. Perhaps Borrowings willingness to present the subject of love in a less con transcending, and nurturing way that lead to her husbands evolve Here, we find the Duke as a dominating character. And the fatal e Duchess is nothing but a sacrifice to the free will of male domino male people always think themselves superior to the female. The and female are bound to obey those commands. A woman is Just hands of a man and is forced to behave in the way a man demand thinks that it is below his dignity to rectify the behavior of the Du cause he doesnt take his wife as his soul mate. If he would take half in the truest sense, he would be able to understand the purr matter of great pity that only because of vain superiority complex the ecstasy of true mutual bond of love and relationship. Physical attractions To Browning lovers, the lady physical charms are not main attar needs not to be an embodiment of loveliness with pearly teeth a Browning did not believe in the idealization of womens physical of physical appearance are rare in his poetry. He concentrates on woman can exert in the relationship of a man. That man may be over. In this poem My Last Duchess when the Duke refers tot his dead wife, he shows the annoyance and Jealousy of the Duke: no doubt, When I passed her, but who passed without Much the same smile? (line: 43-45) 4. The Last Ride Together: A study of optimistic love Synopsis The poem The Last Ride Together appeared in Browning Men It is one of his better-known love-poems. This poem is the soliloquy has been courting a woman but who has in the long run been reek love for her has proved futile and his whole life seems to have FAA might have broken his heart but , instead of scolding and reproach ere in pride and thankfulness, and says that he would be satisfies company for a last ride with him. The lady considers his proposal the lover awaits her decision with almost suspended breath. She conflict between her pride and her pity, but her pity wins and SSH lovers last request. The lover is delighted by the prospect of riding once more in his life. His last thought has not at least been vain. That the world might end the same night! He might have won her tackled her differently; but he might have earned her hatred too. Now at least she doesnt hate him and has been agreed to go on a last ride with him. He consoles himself for his failure as all men strive in the world and few succeed. The lover is therefore , not the only one to have failed in his ambition. There is always a wide difference between a mans aspiration and his achievement. The lover then compares his achievement with that of certain other categories of individuals, and finds that his lot is better than theirs. The lover has compared himself with a statesman, a poet, a soldier, a sculptor, and a musician. He finds out that the achievement of these different individuals is nothing as compared to that of the lover who is at least enjoying the pleasure of his mistresss company on a last ride. He also argues that the rejection of his love by his mistress is a blessing in disguise. Having failed on earth, the lover can now die with an anticipation of loves fulfillment in heaven. Finally, he thinks that there is a possibility that this last ride may continue forever and ever, and that this moment may become eternal. Emotional intensity of the lover The Last Ride Together sings the glory of failure in love. Although the poem is dominated by intellectual analysis, it yet shows Browning as the singer of passionate love. The intensity of emotion characterizes many of the lines in the poem. As the lovers heart overflow with Joy, some of his statements become highly charged with feeling and emotion. For instance when his beloved is considering his final request for a ride he feels that there is life and death in the balance for him and as if the circulation of his blood has stopped. When she agrees to his proposal, he feels that the circulation of his blood has started again and he experiences a feeling of elation: The blood replenished me again : My last thought was at least not vain : I and my mistress, side by side Shall be together, breathe and When she leans against him, he feels as if he is in contact with heaven. There is a passionate quality in the whole of the third stanza in which he describes how a lovers passion might draw cloud, sunset, moonrise, and star shine down on himself, near and yet more near, till flesh must fade for heaven was here! The lover experiences intense Joy, and intense fear when the beloved leans against him and lingers. It is a moment of ecstasy for him. This poem is a proper example of romantic love. Though the lover is in an emotional and romantic mood, he is not totally devoid f reality.

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Cosmos Episode 12 Viewing Worksheet

Cosmos Episode 12 Viewing Worksheet In the spring of 2014, Fox aired the television series Cosmos: A Spacetime Odyssey hosted by Neil deGrasse Tyson. This amazing show, with solid science explained in a totally accessible way, is a rare find for a teacher. Not only is it informative, but students also seem to be entertained and invested in the episodes as Neil deGrasse Tyson narrates and gets excited. Whether,  as a teacher, you  need a video to show your  class as a reward or as a supplement to a science topic, or even as a lesson plan to be followed by a substitute, Cosmos has you covered. One way you can assess the students learning (or at the very least to keep them focused on the show) is to give them a worksheet to fill out during the viewing, or as a quiz afterward. Feel free to copy and paste the worksheet below and use it as the students watch Episode 12 of Cosmos entitled The World Set Free. This particular episode is also a great way to battle any resistance to the idea of global climate change. Cosmos Episode 12 Worksheet Name:______________ Directions: Answer the questions as you watch episode 12 of Cosmos: A Spacetime Odyssey What planet is Neil deGrasse Tyson talking about when he says it used to be paradise?How hot is the surface of Venus?What are the clouds that block the Sun on Venus made of?Which country landed a probe on Venus in 1982?What is the difference in the way carbon is stored on Venus and on Earth?What living thing created the White Cliffs of Dover?What would Venus have needed in order to store carbon in the form of a mineral?What on Earth primarily controls the amount of carbon dioxide in the air?What did Charles David Keeling manage to do in 1958?How can scientists read the â€Å"diary† of the Earth written in the snow?What major event in history is the starting point of the exponential rise of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere?How much carbon dioxide do volcanoes add to the atmosphere on Earth every year?How did scientists conclude the extra carbon dioxide in the air contributing to climate change was not made from volcanoes, but instead comes from burning fossil fuels?How much ext ra carbon dioxide are humans putting into the atmosphere every year by burning fossil fuels? How much additional carbon dioxide has been spewed into the atmosphere since Carl Sagan first warned about doing so in the original â€Å"Cosmos† television series in 1980?What do Neil deGrasse Tyson and his dog walking on the beach symbolize?How are the polar ice caps an example of a positive feedback loop?At what rate are the Arctic Ocean ice caps receding now?How is the permafrost near the North Pole melting increasing carbon dioxide levels?What are two ways we know that the Sun is not the cause of the current global warming trend?What amazing invention did Augustin Mouchot first display in France in 1878?Why was there no interest in Augustin Mouchot’s invention after he won the gold medal at the fair?Why did Frank Shuman’s dream of irrigating the desert in Egypt never come to be?How much of the wind’s power would have to be tapped in order to run all of civilization?The manned missions to the moon were a direct result of what period in the United State s’ history?Who were the first group of people to stop wandering and begin civilization by using agriculture?

Monday, March 2, 2020

A Ways To Go

A Ways To Go A Ways To Go A Ways To Go By Maeve Maddox A reader wonders about the expression â€Å"to have a ways to go†: I thought this was just a California quirk and a recent one at that, but I found it used by Dashiel Hammet in one of his stories, so it has been used for nearly a century. He was of course a California writer, so maybe there is a California connection, although its use seems to have spread nationwide. Unlike anyways, which is viewed as nonstandard on both sides of the Pond, â€Å"a ways to go† seems to have achieved standard status in US English. And while that particular phrase could owe its modern popularity to California-speak, the following OED citation in the entry for way in the sense of distance is dated 1588: They..came vnto the gates of the cittie, after they had gon a good wayes in the suburbs. [They..came unto the gates of the city, after they had gone a good ways in the suburbs.] An OED note points out that the â€Å"origin of the use of ways for way is obscure† and that the usage is â€Å"now only dialect and U.S.† The Ngram Viewer shows the phrase â€Å"a ways to go† in use as early as 1884, but its present popularity seems to have begun in the late 1960s. The following recent examples show the phrase used in a variety of contexts to indicate that a person or entity has more work to do in order to achieve a desired goal: Their disconnect on the immigration reform issue suggests the party still has a ways to go in bridging the gulf between the two.- CNN. Ryan Mallett shows promise, but Texans QB has a ways to go- NFL site headline Some scientists share better than others. While astronomers and geneticists embrace the concept, the culture of ecology still has a ways to go. - Michigan State University site. According to the Public Policy Institute of California, 69 percent of Californians have broadband at home- a ways to go from the state’s goal of 80 percent by 2015.- Encyclopedia of Human Memory, 2013. 13 Years Later, Still a Ways to Go on Sharing Terrorist Threats With Public  - National Defense Magazine. The Navy has made great improvements in race relations, but weve still got a ways to go.- US Defense Department site. IRS has a ways to go before meeting e-file adoption goal- IT site headline. I think we have a ways to go as far as really explaining the value of the Common Core showing how data that is gathered is secure so parents dont need to worry about that.- Superintendent of a Vermont school district.   â€Å"A ways to go† has a more folksy sound than â€Å"a way to go.† It may also suggest that the remaining distance to be traveled is longer than what would be indicated by â€Å"a way to go.† Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Expressions category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:20 Words with More Than One SpellingUse a Dash for Number Ranges150 Foreign Expressions to Inspire You

Saturday, February 15, 2020

An issue Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

An issue - Assignment Example But on the other hand, pro-choice activists argue that this is essentially a red herring, as it assumes that life is automatically good, and that if the baby is brought to term everybody will be happy. Ultimately, although it is a very sticky issue morally, allowing individual women the right to practice abortion legally seems more moral than issuing a blanket denial of abortion for any women at all. The decision to make abortion legal in the early 1960s is one that was, and that continues to be, very controversial. However, it is an unquestionable fact that â€Å"legal abortion has unquestionably benefited women and their families† (Joffe, 54), in the main because these women no longer have to seek out dangerously unsanitary, black market options if they do not wish to bring a child to term. From this viewpoint, it is clear that one of the strongest arguments for legalizing abortion does not necessarily assume whether or not abortion itself is moral. It simply states that sin ce women will get abortions anyway, it is more moral to ensure that they can get abortions legally, as these abortions are safer. Joffe also notes that this is one of the biggest moral problems with anti-abortion movements, as they make for a situation where â€Å"the United States may well return to the situation of the pre-Roe era, when women of means managed to get safe abortion care and poor women often did not† (59) due to lack of easy access to abortion clinics. However, many people argue that the woman is not the person who has the strongest moral right in cases of abortion. Instead, they say, it is the unborn child or fetus who deserves to be protected the most. This is because they argue from a mostly Christian or at least religious standpoint, which holds that â€Å"life [is] a precious gift from God and that man [does] not have the right to kill the innocent child in the womb† (Karrer 528). From this standpoint, allowing abortion to be legal is essentially t he same as legalizing murder, as it kills a potential child who may otherwise have lived. This fact is central to understanding the pro-life view of abortion as an immoral evil, and explains why, despite the Roe V Wade case which legalized the practice nation-wide, there continue to be a number of groups who describe themselves as trying â€Å"to promote respect for the worth and dignity of all human life, including the life of the unborn child from the moment of conception† (Karrer 554). Nonetheless, this argument is a bit of a red herring. If all human life is worth upholding equally, then the woman’s life must also be upheld with dignity and worth. This is at the heart of why abortion is such a sticky issue, as the pro-life arguments must necessarily—or at least should—also focus on how to preserve and treat the life of the woman who wants the abortion. Apart from women’s health, keeping abortion legal can also have a big impact on women’ s social liberation. M. Castle notes that such religious arguments about abortion can sometimes turn from rhetoric to reality by making politics â€Å"profoundly anti-female and sustaining gender inequality† (1). In this argument, the morality of keeping abortion legal moves from a simple matter of health and to one of human rights. It is not just that legal abortion means